CPEN 311
# State Machine

Updated 2019-04-04

A **finite state machine** (FSM) is a system of circuit made up of sequential and combinational logic that has multiple states. The output of a FSM depends on the current input as well as the current state. This is a *Mealy* machine. If the FSM only depends on the current state, it is a *Moore* machine. ^{1}

**State diagrams** are used to visualize and describe the behavior of a state machine. Each bubble is a state, which may also describe the output. The arrow between the bubbles are transitions. Alongside are the input condition for which the transition occur.

There are three parts to any FSM:

- The next-state logic that takes current input and current state and determine what the next state should be.
- The registers that holds the memory of the current state.
- The output logic that takes current state (and current input sometimes) and produces an appropriate output.

In Verilog, it should look like:

```
module FSM(...);
// Use enumerations for states
enum {
INIT,
// ...
} current, next;
// Combinational next state logic
always_comb begin
case (current)
// Assign next state based on input and current state
endcase
end
// Non blocking sequential logic
always_ff @(posedge clk, negedge rst) begin
current <= rst == 0 ? INIT : next;
end
// Combinational output logic
always_comb begin
// Logic for output here
end
endmodule
```

(Note: this isn’t proper Verilog and it won’t synthesize)