The annual amount of materials extracted worldwide has decreased sine 1980.
What is dematerialization and what needs to occur for it to happen?
Dematerialization is the decoupling of economic growth such as GDP from resource consumption.
For this to occur, economic growth must continue, while individual’s consumption rate decreases. This is done by:
- Government policies
- Business models around efficient processes
- Consumer awareness
Here is the design framework typically used by engineers side-by-side with the framework used by experts in biomimicry:
What are the similarities and differences between these to conceptualizations of design?
- Both processes starts with studying the problem, defining the scope and context.
- Both has a brainstorming/idea generation phase.
- Both iterates (loops) to incrementally improve the design.
- Both has a testing phase (emulation step)
- An additional step for biomimicry design process (discovery) which involves studying the nature and abstracting its functions.
- There’s a further evaluation phase for biomimicry design process.
- There seem to be lack of screening/selection (identify most promising solution) phase for biomimicry design process.
Describe an example of design inspired by nature.
Modern artificial intelligence uses machine learning, and many machine learning frameworks such as neural networks are modeled after biological neurons.
Describe the Kalundborg Symbiosis, including it’s basic concept and specific synergies.
Kalundbord Symbiosis is another word for Kalundbord industrial ecology.
Collaboration to utilize each other’s waste products to form a closed system. The by product of one company is the material of another company (output becomes input).
Environment as foundation, and increases economic prosperity because it’s cheaper to re-use materials.
Which of the following are the fundamental foci of the circular economy?
- design for the long-term
- reuse everything
- eliminate waste
The City of Vancouver is planning to be a zero-waste city. In what year do they expect to achieve this goal?
Describe three construction materials that can be recycle and/or reused.
- Recycled aggregates
- Asphalt rubber
Name the four steps in a formal LCA.
- Goal and scope
- Definition inventory
- Impact assessment
What functional unit would you use when conducting an LCA comparison between a paper and ceramic coffee cup?
Number of cups of coffee served before end of life.