Compiled by Mansur He

Table of Contents

Module 5 - Risk Management

Working with hand tools

Personal Protective Equipment

If a student is not wearing personal protective equipment, regardless of what they are doing. He/she needs to be asked to put on personal protective equipment as debris from other workstations is still a hazard.

If small incidents do occur, report to instructor.

If serious injuries occur, call emergency services and administer First Aid.


Video demonstration of the tools

Design Process

Recall the design process from APSC 101:
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  1. Identify stakeholders and needs.
  2. Generate ideas with wide range of diversity. Try not to fixate on an idea or make decisions to eliminate any ideas for now. Use C-Sketch to help with generating solutions.
  3. Screening > Ranking > Scoring. Use Weighted Decision Matrix to help making a decision.
  4. Make prototypes to test the solutions, if the design could be improved, go back to any of the previous stages.
  5. Implementation.

The new modified C-Sketch variant uses 5 minutes for the first round, then 4 minutes for the second round, 3 minutes for the 3rd round…

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians

“Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has never been.” - Theodore Von Karman

Do research and develop theories of why things are the way it is. Mostly theoretical work.

Applies the knowledge and theory into solving real world problems.


Scientists vs Engineers

Claw Project

Understanding Servo Motor

Servo motor diagram

Components in a servo motor

How Servo Motors Work


Risk is a combination of the likelihood of occurance (frequency) and the severity of the incident (consequence).
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Risk Assessment


Calculating Risk

Where Risk is the risk factor (lower is better), the frequency is the probability of the failure, and the consequences are the potential severity in the event of a failure.

If risk is not low enough, risk reduction measures should be implemented into designs.

Risk analysis

  1. Incident Definition and Identification
    • What counts as an incident?
    • What are the biggest unknowns?
  2. Incident and Scenario Analysis
    • What could happen due to the unknowns?
    • What could go wrong?
  3. Determine frequency score and consequence score.
    • What is the likely hood of an incident happening?
    • What is the result / consequence of the incident happening?
  4. Use a risk matrix to calculate the risk factor.
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To quantify risks:

Engineering Drawings

Isometric and Orthographic Views


Alt textIsometric View


OrthographicOrthographic View

In both isometric and orthographic drawings


Perspective view resembles what we see with our eyes realistically.

PerspectivePerspective View

Drawings and Layouts

Hidden Lines

Hidden line

Center Marks and Center Lines

Center line

Bounding Box

Bounding Box

Third Angle Projection


Third angle projection

Title Blocks