Compiled by Mansur He
Table of Contents
Module 5 - Risk Management
Personal Protective Equipment
- Closed toe shoes
- Long pants
- Safety goggles
If a student is not wearing personal protective equipment, regardless
of what they are doing. He/she needs to be asked to put on personal protective
equipment as debris from other workstations is still a hazard.
If small incidents do occur, report to instructor.
If serious injuries occur, call emergency services and administer First
- Snips - cut large sections of sheet metal. (Do not use
to cut wires).
- Seamer - fold sheet metal.
- Nibbler - make small cuts.
- Pliers -
used to bend certain parts and to cut wires.
punch - punch holes.
- Riveting tool - makes
rivets. First compression inserts the rivet into the hole, second compression
secures the rivet into place.
- File - used to
demonstration of the tools
Recall the design process from APSC 101:
- Identify stakeholders and needs.
- Generate ideas
with wide range of diversity. Try not to fixate on an idea or make decisions to
eliminate any ideas for now. Use C-Sketch to help with generating
- Screening > Ranking > Scoring. Use Weighted
Decision Matrix to help making a decision.
- Make prototypes to
test the solutions, if the design could be improved, go back to any of the
The new modified C-Sketch variant uses 5
minutes for the first round, then 4 minutes for the second round, 3 minutes for
the 3rd round…
Scientists, Engineers, and
“Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create
the world that has never been.” - Theodore Von Karman
Do research and develop theories of why
things are the way it is. Mostly theoretical work.
Applies the knowledge and theory into solving
real world problems.
Understanding Servo Motor
Components in a servo motor
- Position Sensor
How Servo Motors Work
Risk is a combination of the likelihood of occurance (frequency) and the
severity of the incident (consequence).
- Causes harm (to the three pillars of sustainability).
- Causes malfunction.
Where Risk is
the risk factor (lower is better), the frequency is the probability of the
failure, and the consequences are the potential severity in the event of a
If risk is not low enough, risk reduction measures should be implemented into
- Incident Definition and Identification
- What counts
as an incident?
- What are the biggest unknowns?
- Incident and Scenario Analysis
- What could happen due
to the unknowns?
- What could go wrong?
- Determine frequency score and consequence score.
- What is
the likely hood of an incident happening?
- What is the result /
consequence of the incident happening?
- Use a risk
matrix to calculate the risk factor.
To quantify risks:
- Make prototypes.
- Design, set up, and perform experiments on
designs and prototypes.
Isometric and Orthographic Views
- Isometric and orthographic views are used to improve visualization of a
concept on a 2D space.
- To view a 3D object in a 2D space, a view must
be selected. The view can either be isometric (from the corner of an object), or
orthographic (from the 6 faces of the object).
- Easy to understand.
- Appropriate for conceptual designs.
- All horizontal lines are 30° from the horizontal axis of the page
- Adds information to the drawing.
- Hidden lines show the features
- All horizontal lines are horizontal.
- 2D project
view from 6 fundamental views of an object.
In both isometric and orthographic drawings
- Vertical lines are vertical on the page.
- Parallel lines of the
object are parallel on the page.
- Equal distance on the same axis are
the same on the page (scalar measurements can be made directly from the
Perspective view resembles what we see with our eyes realistically.
- Objects / features farther away from the viewer appears smaller
- Lines that are parallel on the object does not always look parallel in
Drawings and Layouts
- Represented by dashed lines.
- Shows features that cannot be seen
directly (obstructed because it is behind or inside the part).
making a drawing, adjust views to show as little hidden lines as possible.
Center Marks and Center Lines
- Used for circular or cylindrical features.
- Center line shows
the axis for the cylinder.
- Center mark shows the center of the
- An enclosed volume of the object.
- If sketching without CAD,
bounding box is useful to help draw isometric views.
Third Angle Projection
- Widely used across North America
- Consists of
FRONT orthographic view near the bottom left corner.
- TOP orthographic view is directly above the
- RIGHT end orthographic
view is directly to the right of the FRONT view.
symbol for Third Angle Projection is indicated in the title block.